Hydraulic fracturing or fracking represents two methods of natural gas extraction. The first is a process that involves drilling a deep hole in dense shale rock and then blasting a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals down inside the hole at extremely high pressure to fracture or crack open the surrounding rock and release natural gas and in some cases oil into the water so it can be captured. A second technique called horizontal drilling allows companies to drill vertically, then laterally through shale formations. This second method also uses a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals. These methods can be applied to wells for shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, and coal seam gas. The term "fracking" is currently used to refer to either method. They are considered cost efficient ways to access natural gas and other fuel deposits that might otherwise be inaccessible. Fracking has increased known gas reserves. Some believe that these gas supplies will last for more than 100 years. READ FULL STUDY.